Standards and proprietary extensions

All converters are in some way or the other compliant with the established standards. However the showcases show that the rendering behaviors - partly because of bugs and partly because of ambiguties in the standard or because the standard leave room for interpretation. All converters implement on top of the standard their own extensions for providing additional functionalities that are not (yet) part of the related standards. This makes it more complicated for choosing the right tool. For more complex layout requirements you need to know the tools in detail and check if a particular requirement is supported by a certain tool - often you need to think about workaround for implementing a particular functionality (e.g. sidenotes are only supported by Antennahouse as propriertary extension, same for footnotes within a multi-column layout within the same column). In addition: none of the converters implements the CSS Paged Media standard completely. The vendor specific extensions makes interoperability hard. You can not expect that converters will produce the identical results with identical content and styles.


The support for Javascript inside the rendering tools is limited, very limited. PDFreactor and PrinceXML support common Javascript libraries like jQuery or other certified Javascript add-ons. In many case even simple Javascript add-ons like barcode generators just don’t work or produce empty output or fail with some internal error messages. The situation is in general bad. Useful Javascript modules like MathJax for rendering MathML does not work at all. Vivliostyle does not support Javascript at the moment. The state of Javascript with Antennahouse is unknown.


All converters work with the most common images formats (GIF, PNG, JPG) and vector graphics (SVG). RGB and CMYK color spaces are supported. The major problem with graphics is automatic positioning and resizing of images. CSS provides a limited options for influencing image placement and positioning especially in edge cases where an automatic size reduction of images could result in a better layout. Tools like PDFreactor provide limited access to the renderer internals in order to implement an adaptive image layout.

MathML support

Brought to the point: MathML support in all renderers is broken at the moment. Lots of formatting and layout issues with native renderers and renderers based on MathJax (Vivliostyle). It is questionable if MathML will ever work. The only future for MathML is a cross-plattform support for a Javascript based rendering engine like MathJax. However neither PrinceXML nor PDFreactor nor Antennahouse support MathJax. So the only recommendation for using MathML directly: forget it. The only valid option is to convert MathML somehow to LaTeX and then SVG. MathML parts of your input should be replaced with a related SVG. However the toolchain here also is not straight forward here.


PDF forms are widely available and used. PDFreactor is the only tool that can generate PDF files with forms support.

Line grids

Support for line grids or grids in general is an upcoming features. There is an W3C draft CSS Line Grid Module Level 1 in the making. The this time there is only support for line grids in PDFreactor Version 8 through vendor specific properties -ro-line-snap and -ro-line-grid. The status of grid support in Antennahouse is unclear. No support for grids in PrinceXML and Vivliostyle.

Multimedia (video and audio)

While PDF allows the embedding of multimedia content like video and audio, the overall value is questionsable. Antennahouse is the only tool supporting multimedia content in PDF files. The only PDF reader on the market with multimedia support seems to be Acrobat (Reader). The standard PDF viewer on MacOSX (“Preview”) does not support multimedia PDF files. So the toolchain for generating multimedia PDFs is limited and the tool options on the consumer side are even more poor.

Further PDF features

Advanced features like

  • digital signatures
  • tagged PDFs
  • accessible PDFs
  • archive PDFs (PDF/A)

are best supported by Antennahouse and PDFreactor.


All converters are in general capable to convert XML to PDF by using the display: CSS property that allows to specify the semantics of an XML element like display: block or display: table-cell. However using HTML over XML has a significant advantage - at least when using PDFreactor or PrinceXML- : usage of Javascript. The Javascript layer is only available for HTML as input, not for XML. Javascript allows you to provide additional functionality like auto-generated content, usage of selected Javascript add-ons etc. When dealing with XML you usually have a transformation pipeline for generating an equivalent HTML representation of XML input. Use XML as input is doable but I do prefer using HTML as input for the mentioned reasons.

Missing features and major pain

Shapes and exclusions

There is a W3C CSS draft for shapes and exclusions however none of the converters support this draft sofar. Vivliostyle implements support for shapes and exclusions through <EPUB Adaptive Layout <http://www.idpf.org/epub/pgt/>`_ - however this approach is pretty weird.

Better and more flexible support for floats

All converters support the standard float: left and float: right properties (in particular for images combined with text). Vendor specific extensions are implemented (by Antennhouse in particular).

Support for influencing the rendering process

Using “CSS Paged Media” approach means automatic typesetting. Formatting decisions are left to the implementation of the related converters. You have little influence on the rendering process (except pagination). It would be helpful having a Javascript API for being able to influence the rendering. This might solve issues with improper pagination decisions, floating of elements etc.


For a quick benchmark of the tools I used the Oxygen Userguide. I converted the user guide to a single HTML file (20 MB) using the DITA OT and converted it using all four converters (4 CPU box, 2.4 GHz, 8 GB RAM). The result PDF files have been 2200 and 2400 pages.

PDFreactor PrinceXML Antennahouse Vivliostyle
150 secs 24 secs 220 secs 90 secs

Which tool should I choose?

The general rule in my experience is: you get what you pay for. The open-source solution Weasyprint will work for standard requirements without fancy layout requirements. PDFreactor and PrinceXML provide worked both for us in enterprise projects. Our current preference is PDFreactor because of the better documentation and the lower price compared to PrinceXML. Antennahouse is more expensive (you pay for each CPU and each extension) but it provides several extensions (e.g. better float support) that might be needed in your projects. So there is no general recommendation possible. The choice of a tool depends on your requirements and budget. (ZOPYX offers a vendor-neutral consulting on CSS Paged Media issues).