Standards and proprietary extensions

All converters are compliant with the established standard to some degree or another. However, the showcases demonstrate that their rendering behaviours vary - partly because of bugs, and partly because of ambiguities in the standard or because the standard leaves room for interpretation. As well as implementing the respective standard, each converter implements its own extensions for providing additional functionalities that are not (yet) part of the standard itself. This makes it more complicated to choose the right tool. For more complex layout requirements, it is necessary to know the tools in detail and to check whether a particular requirement is supported by a certain tool. Often, you will need to think of a workaround for implementing a particular functionality (for example, sidenotes are only supported by Antennahouse as a proprietary extension; the same applies for placing footnotes in the same column as the reference in a multi-column layout). In addition, none of the converters implement the CSS Paged Media standard in a complete way. The vendor-specific extensions make interoperability difficult. We cannot expect that converters will produce identical results with identical content and styles.


Support for Javascript inside the rendering tools is very limited. PDFreactor and PrinceXML support common Javascript libraries like jQuery or other certified Javascript add-ons. In many cases, even simple Javascript add-ons like barcode generators produce empty output, fail on account of internal error messages or simply don't work. In general, therefore, the situation is mixed. Trial and error is required for checking the functionality and compatibility of individual Javascript modules.


All converters work with standard image formats (GIF, PNG, JPG) and vector graphics (SVG). RGB and CMYK colour spaces are supported. The main problem with graphics is the automatic positioning and resizing of images. CSS provides limited options for controlling image placement and positioning, especially in edge cases where an automatic size reduction of images could result in a better layout. Tools like PDFreactor provide limited access to the renderer internals for implementing an adaptive image layout.

MathML support

MathML is supported by PrinceXML, PDFreactor and Antennahouse. PDFReactor and PrinceXML have various issues with MathML. The best MathML support is provided by Antennahouse, though this also comes with various rendering issues.

It is questionable whether MathML will ever work. The only future for MathML would lie in cross-platform support for a Javascript-based rendering engine like MathJax. However, neither PrinceXML, PDFreactor nor Antennahouse support MathJax, which means that the only possible recommendation in regard to using MathML directly is: forget it. The only valid option is to convert MathML to LaTeX somehow and then to SVG. MathML parts of your input should be replaced with a related SVG. However, even in this scenario, the toolchain is not straightforward.


PDF forms are widely available and used. PDFreactor is the only tool that can generate PDF files with form support.

Baseline grids

Support for line grids or grids in general is an upcoming feature. There is a W3C draft CSS Line Grid Module Level 1 in the making. At the current time, support for line grids only exists in PDFreactor Version 9 through vendor specific properties -ro-line-snap and -ro-line-grid and in Antennahouse through its own extension.

Multimedia (video and audio)

While PDF allows the embedding of multimedia content like video and audio, the overall value of this is questionable. Antennahouse is the only tool supporting multimedia content in PDF files. The only PDF reader on the market with multimedia support seems to be Acrobat (Reader). The standard PDF viewer on MacOSX ("Preview") does not support multimedia PDF files. As such, the toolchain for generating multimedia PDFs is limited and the tool options on the consumer side are even poorer.

Further PDF features

Advanced features like

  • Digital signatures
  • Tagged PDFs
  • Accessible PDFs
  • Archive PDFs (PDF/A)

are best supported by Antennahouse, PrinceXML and PDFreactor.


All converters are generally capable of converting XML to PDF by using the display: CSS property that allows the user to specify the semantics of an XML element like display: block or display: table-cell. However, when dealing with PDFreactor or PrinceXML, HTML has a significant advantage over XML: usage of Javascript. The Javascript layer is only available as input for HTML, not XML. Javascript allows you to provide additional functionality such as auto-generated content, usage of selected Javascript add-ons and more. When dealing with XML, you usually have a transformation pipeline for generating an equivalent HTML representation of XML input. Using XML as input is doable, but I prefer using HTML as input for the reasons mentioned above.

Missing features and major pain points

Shapes and exclusions

Although is a W3C CSS draft for shapes and exclusions, none of the converters so far support this draft.

Better and more flexible support for floats

All converters support the standard float: left and float: right properties (in particular for images combined with text). Vendor-specific extensions have been implemented, most notably by Antennahouse.

Support for influencing the rendering process

Using the "CSS Paged Media" approach means automatic typesetting. Formatting decisions are left to the implementation of the related converters. The user has little influence over the rendering process, save for pagination. It would be helpful to have a Javascript API for influencing the rendering. This might solve issues with improper pagination decisions, floating of elements etc.


I used the Oxygen Userguide to carry out a quick benchmarking of the tools. I converted the user guide to a single HTML file (20 MB) using the DITA OT using all four converters (4 CPU box, 2.4 GHz, 8 GB RAM). The resulting PDF files were 2200 and 2400 pages.

PDFreactor PrinceXML Antennahouse
150 secs 24 secs 220 secs

Which tool should I choose?

In my experience, the general rule is: you get what you pay for. The open-source solution Weasyprint will work for standard jobs without fancy layout requirements. PDFreactor and PrinceXML both worked for us in enterprise projects. Our current preference is PDFreactor because of the better documentation and the lower price compared to PrinceXML. Antennahouse is more expensive (you pay for each CPU and each extension), but provides several of the extensions (e.g. better float support) that you might need in your projects. As such, it is not possible to issue a one-size-fits-all recommendation. The choice of tool depends on your requirements and budget. (ZOPYX offers vendor-neutral consulting on CSS Paged Media issues).